Книга "Shakespearean Extracts From Edward Pudseys Booke, Temp. Q. Elizabeth & K. James I., Which Include Some From an Unknown Play by William Shakespeare [or Rather From G. Chapmans Blind Beggar of Alexandria] Also a few…
Shakespearean extracts from "Edward Pudsey's booke", temp. Q. Elizabeth & K. James I. which include some from an unknown play by William Shakespeare [or rather from Chapman's "Blind beggar of Alexander"] Also a few unpublished records of the Shakespeare of Snitterfield and Wroxall preserved in the Public Record Office.
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Undelivered Meanings: The Aesthetics of Shakespearean Wordplay.
The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of his room.". Swinney discovered that for a few seconds, the length of two or three 4, продолжить person will register not only the delivered meaning of "bug".
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Roald Dahl, the writer of “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,” was given a Viking funeral, and was buried with wine, snooker cues, pencils and a power saw
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Quote #5. Septimus was one of the first to volunteer.
He went to France to save an England which consisted almost entirely of Shakespeare's plays and Miss Isabel Pole in a green dress walking in a square. There in the trenches the change which Mr Brewer desired when he advised football was produced instantly; he developed manliness […].
Critical suspicion of wordplay derives, I believe, from concerns about the dignity of literature and about the dignity of studying it for a living.
In this essay I would like to demonstrate that thoughtful study of trivial punning is not only possible but essential to a full appreciation of literary art.
Far from distancing myself from the potential frivolity of wordplay, I intend to embrace and celebrate it even to the point of pursuing something as odd and insubstantial as the undelivered pun.
It has some malignant power over his mind, and its fascinations are irresistible.
Whatever be the dignity or profundity of his disquisition, whether he be enlarging knowledge or exalting affection, whether he be amusing attention with incidents, or enchaining it in источник статьи, let but a quibble spring up before him, and he leaves his work unfinished.
A quibble is the golden apple for which he will always turn aside from his career, or stoop from his elevation.
A детальнее на этой странице, poor and barren as it is, gave him such delight, that he was content to purchase it, by the sacrifice of reason, propriety and truth.
A quibble was to him the fatal Cleopatra for which he lost the world, and was content to lose it.
Puns seem to awake such a terror of the trivial in scholars that many choose either to ignore or casually disparage them, and even those contemporary critics who focus on wordplay usually go to extraordinary lengths to make it seem serious, dignified, and important.
Patricia Parker, a vigorous defender of the importance of puns, assures us that "Shakespearean wordplay—the very feature relegated by the subsequent influence of neoclassicism to the rude and deformed as well as ornamental or trivial—provides a way into networks whose linkages expose the very orthodoxies and ideologies the plays themselves often appear simply to rehearse.
But this strategy often tends to marginalize the very puns it claims to champion.
Consider the following passage from The Merchant of Venice: LORENZO.
It is much that the Moor should be more than reason; but if she be less than an honest woman, she is indeed more than I took her for.
Hall has observed, this reduction to mere quibble or jingle.
Both want to get Shakespeare away from the trivial and back to important matters.
In both cases, a sense of serious moral purpose triumphs over the dangerous temptations of aesthetic frivolity.
Much of our current disdain for wordplay may spring from the suspicion of formalism and close literary analysis that currently so dominates critical discourse.
Before we can deal honestly with puns and wordplay, we need to rethink the purpose of close reading.
I suggest that we can use the techniques of close reading in a new way, not to interpret texts but to analyze the pleasures they provide to audiences.
The most basic component of any close reading is the assumption that careful analysis can reveal multiple nuances of meaning not readily apparent to the casual reader.
A critic will typically use the newly excavated meanings to provide supporting evidence for an interpretation, usually an interpretation guided by a pre-existing theoretical agenda.
The plenitude of meanings that close reading reveals, however, often exceeds the needs of the particular critic.
The gap between the multitude of verbal nuances and the monolithic nature of a final interpretation is a serious problem both for New Criticism and for all the subsequent critical schools that borrow its analytical techniques.
As Charles Нажмите сюда points out, "The New Critics greatly expanded our sense of the semantic complexity of a text, but they did not develop adequate ways of showing how this information might be coherently processed.
I submit that the "semantic complexity" of cherished literary texts is not "coherently processed" by readers and audiences and that to try to provide some coherent schema for that heterogeneous complexity constitutes a denial of the very feature that makes literature appealing.
Close reading reveals an excess of possible meanings that interpretation-centered criticism has not found compelling ways to explain.
Rather than trying to "interpret" verbal excess, we should try to see how it functions in our experience of the phrases, sentences, and speeches in which it occurs.
Attempts to systematize the multiple and conflicting connotations of literary language arise from the mistaken assumption that because literature is made of words, its only consequential action must be to transmit meanings.
On the contrary, literary artifacts, especially those that constitute the Shakespearean canon, play with the formal properties of language in the same way musical compositions play with rhythm, melody, and harmony or the way works of visual art play with various combinations of forms, lines, Крыша ЦМО colors.
Richness of connotation is one such formal property of literary language, and the patterns of potential meanings are as crucial to the experience of a work of literature as the modulations in key and rhythm in a musical composition or the patterns of shape, color, and light in a painting.
In each case, the patterns are not conduits for messages but material properties of the work that engage the audience in a richly complex experience.
In short, Shakespeare does with meanings and connotations of words what a painter like Vermeer does with line, color, and shape: he organizes them into intricate and pleasing patterns.
Edward Snow elaborates on the web of contrasts that structure the painting: Woman Pouring Milk.
The pair of hanging baskets provides the key: rough and smooth, hard and soft, woven and molded, curved and angular, open and shut.
They even initiate opposing vectors: one tilting downward toward the footwarmer on the floor, the other jutting outward toward the pitcher pouring читать далее />Similar oppositions create the weave, the weft and warp, of the painting.
Consider especially the shifting interplay of organic and manufactured forms the bread and milk against containers and the table; the wicker basket against the metal one; or both baskets against the footwarmeror the counterpoint between various states of suspension the hanging baskets and the cradled pitcher suggest contrasting modes and groundedness the things on the table evoke one mood, the footwarmer anotheror the downward progression through things at hand the baskets on the wallin hand the pitcher pouring milkand abandoned, out of reach or ken the footwarmer on the floor.
The network of contrasts that Snow describes coexists with a network of further similarities among dissimilar items.
Consider the two baskets hanging on the wall on the left side of the painting.
They are linked https://sekretlady.ru/tsvet/bxm07-s-rapala-bx-minnow-7-sm-7sm-s-7g.html only by kind but by their position in the composition; they are distinguished because one is made https://sekretlady.ru/tsvet/magnitniy-puskatel-kontaktor-dlya-emkostnoy-nagruzki-schneider-electric-lc1dmkm7.html wicker, the other of copper.
The two wicker baskets in Лазерное GD-004, цвет красный painting are linked by their common material but otherwise distinguished.
One is rectangular, closed, and hanging on the wall.
The other is round, open, and sitting on the table.
The round wicker basket holds two loaves of bread: 4 round, the other rectangular.
These 4 similar and different loaves both resemble and differ from the broken pieces of bread lying on the table between the bread basket and the milk bowl.
The round basket echoes the round bowl into which the woman pours milk, but one is wicker and extravagantly porous, the other solid earthen ware.
Note too that the semicircular handles on the bread basket point up, while the semicircular handles on the milk bowl point to the sides.
The milk bowl is made of адрес страницы same material as the milk pitcher and the cup inside the footwarmer sitting in the lower right hand corner of the painting.
Although all three objects are linked by their kind, they are all markedly different in size, shape, and position in the composition.
The milk pitcher is similar in shape to the pitcher that sits on the table, but one is earthen ware, simple, open, and aligned on a horizontal axis while the other is metallic, more ornate, closed, and aligned on a vertical axis.
The table and the footwarmer are similar in shape but very different in scale and function.
Suffice it to say that various networks of similarities and differences among compositional elements thread across the whole painting.
Such networks—whether in a painting, a quartet, or a film—make the work that contains them exciting, eventful, brimming with patterns and relationships.
Close reading can Инфракрасный СЕМ DT-8860B a similar wealth of linguistic activity in literary texts.
Most critics impoverish that wealth by making it conform to the dictates of a theoretical agenda.
But close readers do not have to make that assumption.
Indeed, the very best close readers, I would argue, are those who can present the complexity of a text while resisting the impulse to interpretive closure.
Clearly this is involved in all such richness and heightening of effect, and the machinations of ambiguity are among the very roots of poetry.
Empson finds lots of interconnected potential meanings and assumes that they all play some part in giving the 4 its impact.
A technique of close reading that pays full attention to richness of patterning can allow us to understand more fully the beauty of literary language rather than using such читать далее as a pretext for talking about some other historically, politically, or philosophically solemn topic.
Here is an exchange from Titus Andronicus: NURSE.
O, tell me, did you see Aaron the Moor?
The puns in these plays are overtly clever.
In contrast to the simultaneously bland and ostentatious exploitation of the potential inherent in the words "Moor" and "more," consider how Shakespeare deals with the same potential in Othello.
In Othello, Shakespeare creates an environment that brings together the elements necessary for a pun but keeps them from consummating their relationship.
Instead of squandering the inherent energy of the pun, Shakespeare maintains all its unrealized potential.
Even a radical post-structuralist like Joel Fineman sensibly insists that a "motivated homophone," or pun, "must be статья, Oxgard турникет QL-04-SM-900 думаю as such for it to work its poetic effect.
Yet such undelivered meanings have been studied by perceptual psychologists.
Some experiments indicate that people do momentarily entertain meanings for words that cannot fit logically into the clear meaning of a sentence.
David Swinney, for example, presented subjects with these sentences: "Rumor has it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems.
The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of his room.
Moreover, a number of critics have commented on the odd occurrence of unnoticed but poetically effective puns.
Christopher Ricks coined the appropriately bizarre term "anti-pun" to describe the phenomenon: "The practice is a variety of pun, but it is an читать статью whereas in a pun there are two senses which either get along or quarrel, in an anti-pun there is only one sense admitted but there is another sense denied admission.
He argues that such patterns of wordplay provide a linguistic coherence that does not consist of delivered meaning.
He sees ideational puns as an extension of such formal devices as rhyme, rhythm, and alliteration.
All such devices give источник статьи work of literature rich, yet nonsubstantive, coherence, coherence that lies in patterns and forms that "can make an artificial construct feel almost as inevitable—as obviously a thing and not a conglomerate—as an object in nature.
A comparable feel of limitless mental possibility, I suggest, derives to us from the presence of substantively irrelevant organizations in the literary constructs we value best and longest.
Consider the common laudatory phrase "pregnant with meaning.
A delivered pun advertises its own cleverness, it requires us to acknowledge it.
The raw materials for a pun that never reaches our conscious attention will have a radically different effect.
The unharnessed pun creates an exciting and volatile mental environment, one that provides a vital component of the pleasure we take from Shakespearean language.
Ross provides a vocabulary that may help clarify the nature of unharnessed meanings.
As Ross points out, "Everyone who speaks one of the relevant natural languages.
He calls the linguistic and contextual forces that cause differentiation "dominance.
Shakespeare skillfully manipulates linguistic dominance relationships to force words to differentiate, to assume contextually appropriate meanings.
The word "rivals" differentiates into the unconventional meaning "partners" because of the dominating context.
Such manipulation of linguistic contexts reveals how Shakespeare employed the principles that Ross later explained.
They are rejected hypotheses, but 4 are conceptually pertinent rejected hypotheses, and that pertinence is what makes entertaining them a proper part of the experience of reading or listening.
When dominance forces a word to differentiate into two conceptually pertinent meanings, we call such an occurrence a pun.
Like most other literary phenomena, перейти на страницу enable readers to perceive simultaneous likeness and difference, but the similarity established by a pun is always and obviously an accidental one established by coincidental phonetic resemblance.
Consider, for instance, the following pun from the opening of Julius Caesar.
When asked what his trade is, the Cobbler tells Murellus that he is "a mender of bad soles" Julius Caesar 1.
The pun establishes a relationship between sole the bottom of a shoe and soul the immaterial part of a human beingyet the pun also, simultaneously, advertises how хорошем Буй круглый надувной красный, OCEAN моему and coincidental that relationship is.
Perhaps more than на этой странице other trope, puns call attention to themselves.
But when they get the attention they crave, they also reveal their own insignificance.
So, when the mortally wounded Mercutio tells Romeo, "Ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find me a grave man" Romeo and Juliet 3.
Although the context for a pun on grave is at least as rich here as in Romeo and Julietthat context is not harnessed to bring the potential for punning to our conscious attention.
Although unobserved, I believe that such unharnessed meanings are aesthetically potent.
It is a commonplace that unobtrusive rhetorical effects are more pleasing than crude, heavy-handed ones.
The concept of the unharnessed pun merely presents an extension of that principle.
Unharnessed ссылка can have an effect even when the delivered meanings of a passage remain obscure or incomprehensible.
Leontes means in general that the impossible has become all too possible, but the particulars of his meaning are his own.
These opaque lines do not deliver precise meanings to an audience, but they do contain a number of unharnessed meanings.
In the phrase "Can thy dam?
And consider the phrase "thy intention stabs the center.
Again, although such linguistic play probably never intrudes into the conscious awareness of an audience, it nevertheless adds an extra dimension of connection among the various linguistic elements.
Consider the following examples: "O King Stephano!
Right joyous are we to behold your face" Henry V 5.
Shakespeare makes similar use of the term "peerless"; although the word means "without equal," Shakespeare seems to sense its potential as a pun meaning something like "without vision" or "unseen.
Often, potential or undelivered puns will create fleeting links between certain lines.
For example, look at these lines in which Macbeth speaks to the ghost of Banquo and Lady Macbeth addresses the assembled guests: MACBETH.
Avaunt, and quit my sight!
Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold; Thou hast no speculation in those eyes Which thou dost glare with!
Think of this, good peers, But as a thing of custom.
Another unharnessed pun that occasionally energizes passages in Shakespeare occurs with the word "weed.
Her clothes spread wide, And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up Hamlet 4.
The phrase "crownet weeds" forges a link between these otherwise unrelated topics.
While this connection surely never intrudes into the thoughts of an audience to the speech, it does provide an extra level of formal connection among the speeches elements.
Here the undelivered pun on weeds functions like a subtle repetition of color in a painting: it provides an посмотреть еще degree of coherence to the work.
Note the similar wordplay in the following passage: Besides, they are our outward consciences And preachers to us all, admonishing That we should dress us fairly for our end.
Thus may we gather 4 from the weed, And make a moral of the devil himself.
First, I will consider how readers and playgoers might experience undelivered meanings differently.
Second, I will address the concern that the potential punning I analyze was never an intentional part of the works in which it appears.
Throughout this discussion, I have made no distinction between two different kinds of audiences: readers and playgoers.
A colleague has suggested that my analyses imply that every playgoer can instantly "close hear" a line in all the detail that I bring to close readings conducted at leisure.
An examination of the debate between text-based and performance-based critics may help explain why I choose to ignore the distinctions between readers and playgoers.
A number of contemporary critics have taken sides in a debate about the relative authority of text-based and performance-based interpretations of Shakespearean drama.
According to Berger, a champion of the Slit-eyed Analyst, close reading can and should make manifest information unavailable to playgoers: "Decelerated microanalysis.
Thus for Berger, and for many other text-based interpreters, the text opens up realms of meaning inaccessible to playgoers.
Note that both sides of this debate are promoting methods of interpretation.
According to Berger, "when Shakespeare is staged and you hear his language at performance tempo you are always haunted by the sense that you are receiving more information than you can process, and you wish you could slow the tempo down or have passages repeated or reach for a text.
Unlike Berger, however, I celebrate that excess.
The sense of excess does not "haunt" me, it delights me.
Close reading of a text can help us analyze just exactly what has gone whizzing across our minds, but seeing all the excess more clearly after the fact does not imply that we should, or even can, make it a part of our conscious experience of the play.
Knowing precisely how a particular process works does not change that process.
Reading a detailed scientific analysis of how our bodies digest food will not alter our own digestive processes.
Moreover, most readers are not close readers.
Most readers outside the academy read plays in the same way playgoers hear them: one word at a time, at the speed of thought.
Playgoers are, perhaps, a bit more likely than readers to hear and brush from their understandings the sorts of shadow assertions that I talk about.
An auditor inescapably hears each succeeding syllable as the defining one in an emerging constellation of ideas.
But both the reader and the playgoer will miss, at least on the https://sekretlady.ru/tsvet/tvisteri-aiko-eel-3-75-mm-22-gr-zapah-ribi-tsvet-004-upakovka-8-sht.html level, most of the linguistic effects I point to.
You need not be a close reader or a close hearer to experience a Shakespeare play fully.
This is, of course, yet another version of the intentional fallacy.
The idea that only intended effects are real will not stand up to serious scrutiny.
If all unintentional phenomena were unreal, there would be no spelling erors.
To demonstrate this point I would like to look at two examples of unharnessed puns that could not have been intended by Shakespeare.
Here the play on "liquor" and "sprites" or "spirits" gives precisely the kind of extra coherence and energy to the 4 that I have analyzed throughout this essay.
One key difference is that that potential pun was unavailable to the minds and ears of early seventeenth-century audiences to The Tempest.
The word "spirits" did not come to mean an alcoholic beverage until the mid-1680s.
The connection between spirits and liquor gives contemporary audiences a connection between two dominant topics in the scene.
References to spirits on the island and to liquor run throughout this scene with Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo, and their intersection here—though clearly a historical linguistic accident—reinforces a pattern already undeniably present in the play.
Near the end of 1 Henry IV another historically привожу ссылку connection of potential meanings occurs.
Hal then turns his attention to the apparently dead Falstaff and declares, "What, old acquaintance!
However, the word "stout" did not acquire the meaning "fat" until the early 1800s.
For a contemporary audience, nevertheless, the unharnessed verbal link between Hotspur and Falstaff is quite plausible because the early modern meanings of "stout" strong, proud, bold are virtually obsolete in modern English.
Here again, although the connection clearly results from a linguistic accident, it fits well into the patterning of the context in which it occurs.
Even without the play on "stout," the lines on Hotspur and Falstaff deal with the contrasts of full and empty, living and dead, large and small.
O, I could prophesy, But that the earthy and cold hand of death Lies on my tongue.
No, Percy, thou art dust, And food for — Dies.
For worms, brave Percy.
Fare thee well, great heart!
When that this body did contain a spirit, A kingdom for нажмите чтобы увидеть больше was too small a bound, But now two paces of the vilest earth Is room enough.
This earth that bears thee dead Bears not alive so stout a gentleman.
He spieth Falstaff on the ground.
O, I should have a heavy miss of thee If I were much in love with vanity!
Death hath not strook so fat a deer to-day, Though many dearer, нажмите для продолжения this bloody fray.
All these incidental contrasting parallels subtly reinforce the play-wide series of contrasts between Hotspur and Falstaff.
In this case, audiences today get an extra element in the lushly patterned design through a historical linguistic accident.
The rich conceptual harmonies that relate these passages are the essence of the poetic richness that draws us so irresistibly to Shakespeare.
Any sustained analytical attention to wordplay is likely to make some critics fidgety.
An inevitable sense of whimsy attends any analysis of something so obviously frivolous as an undelivered pun.
It lacks the gravity and consequence we have grown to expect from the interpretation industry.
But if we refuse to acknowledge the full reality of the texts we study, however wacky or trifling they may seem, we risk losing touch with the very power that draws us to literature in the first place.
As Debra Fried reminds us, "It is dangerous to assume that the local tics of puns in lyric poems must serve a coherent reading of the poem, and that puns that do not mean anything in this sense are simply not there.
Like the Augustan poetic of sound as echo to sense, this tendency toward making puns serve meaning robs them 4 some of their wildness and shimmering contingency.
Arthur Sherbo New Haven: Yale University Press, 196874.
Blakemore Evans, et al.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997 ; I silently omit the brackets with which Riverside signals deviations from its chosen copy text.
Kenneth Muir London: Methuen, 198485.
Aycock Lubbock: Texas Tech Press, 198151-66; "Close Reading Without Readings," in Shakespeare Reread: The Texts in New Contexts, ed.
Ross, Portraying Analogy London: Cambridge University Press, 19814.
Thompson, Shakespeare: Meaning and Metaphor Brighton: Harvester Press, 1987159.
The quote is unconvincing as evidence because "spirit" is 4 apposition to "quintessence" and because the context implies alchemical rather than alcoholic distillation.
The next quote for this meaning comes from 1688.
Jonathan Culler Oxford: Blackwell, 198899.